The books of the kings are: 1 & 2 Samuel, 1 & 2 Kings, 1 & 2 Chronicles. The time of the kings is from 1050-586 B.C. (from the time King Saul became king, to the fall of Jerusalem).
THE UNITED KINGDOM
The United Kingdom lasted for 120 years. From 1050-930 B.C., three kings ruled during the time of the United Kingdom.
1. Saul: from 1050-1010 B.C. (Acts 13:21)
2. David: from 1010-970 B.C. (2 Samuel 5:4-5)
3. Solomon: from 970-930 B.C. (1 Kings 11:42)
Each king ruled 40 years (40+40+40=120 years).
THE DIVIDED KINGDOM
In 930 B.C., the United Kingdom divides into two kingdoms
1 Kings 11:26-40,12:20 - 2 Chronicles 10:1-11:12
1. Israel: 10 tribes (Northern Kingdom)
2. Judah: 2 tribes (Southern Kingdom)
“Kings of Israel” and “Kings of Judah”
THE FALL OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH
Israel had nineteen kings and Judah had twenty kings.
Israel fell to Assyria in 722 B.C.
Judah fell to Babylon in 586 B.C.
THREE EXILES TO BABYLON
From 605 to 586 B.C. (605, 597, 586 B.C.)
1. First exile: 605 B.C. (Daniel 1:1-6)
2. Second exile: In 597 B.C., Ezekiel was taken to Babylon (2 Kings 24:10-16
3. Third and last exile: In 586 B.C., the Babylonians burned the temple, and tore down the wall around Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 36:17-20)
THREE SUPER POWERS: Assyria, Babylon and Persia
2 Chronicles 36:17-23) the text tells about how the Jewish people were under two different empires.
1. Assyrian Empire
2. The Babylon Empire
3. The Persian Empire
See: 2 Kings 25:1-11, 2 Chronicles 36:17-23
2 Chronicles 36:17) the king of the Chaldeans (Babylonians) was king Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned from 605-562 B.C. He became an instrument of God’s judgment through Judah’s last 20 years (605-586 B.C.) and well into the Babylonian exile (586-539 B.C.)
2 Chronicles 36:20) Until the rule of the Kingdom of Persia: Cyrus the King of Persia conquered Babylon in 539 B.C. and allowed the Jews to return back to Jerusalem the following year (538 B.C.).
2 Chronicles 36:21) Word fulfilled by Jeremiah: Jeremiah 25:11, 29:10.
Seventy years: Seventy years is the approximate length of the Babylonian captivity (605-539 B.C.)
Note: 2 Chronicles 36:20-22) There is a “gap” in time. There are about 47 years unaccounted for from 586 to 539 B.C. From the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. to the time Cyrus King of Persia conquered the Babylonian Empire in 539 B.C.
This verse in the Bible is “silent” on what the Jewish people did in Babylon during this 47-year period. It is assumed that the Jewish people built homes, and had businesses in Babylon; they lived, grew up, and had children and families there, like Jeremiah told them to do (Jeremiah 29:4-6).
2 Chronicles 36:22) Don’t miss this: here is the “changing of the guards” or better said, the changing of the Empires. From Babylon being the world power, to Persia becoming the world power.
First year of Cyrus: He captured Babylon in 539 B.C. (See Isaiah 44:28, 45:1, 13)
First year: 538 B.C. when the people began to return back to Jerusalem.